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Services away from grunts and you may strong grunts created by territorial people and you can grunts developed by people of your corkwing wrasse
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Desk 2. For men, amount of audio analysed is provided with because final amount as well as the range of audio analysed for every individual during the brackets. For men, amount of nest websites equivalent how many men recorded, for ladies, they represents just how many nests where i noticed her or him. Male sound characteristics was averaged towards the individual top in advance of calculating this new presented research. Imply ± SD | Average is given toward amount of pulses per voice, years, heart rate and you may dominating volume

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Figure 3. Multiple pulse music created by the brand new corkwing wrasse. Wave form (top) and you may involved spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt out-of a good territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Strong grunt of a great territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt out-of a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram setup: fifty dB vibrant variety, Hamming windows (raised sine-squared), 0.008 s windows length (men and women grunt), 0.08 s window duration (male strong grunt)

Contour step 3. Multiple heart circulation audio created by this new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you can related spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt out of good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt out of good territorial male corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt out of a lady corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram charmdate options: 50 dB active assortment, Hamming windows (raised sine-squared), 0.008 s window size (male and female grunt), 0.08 s windows size (male deep grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.001, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-heartbeat music

The selection of clearly assignable ticks led to the research from 102 men presses regarding 29 video out of 19 anyone and you may 66 females clicks from 20 films at the nests from 14 males. The selection of certainly assignable plops lead to the study away from 73 men plops away from twenty eight videos off 18 video and 66 female plops from 21 video at nests from 14 boys. Averaging men musical for each private male lead to an example sized letter = 18 getting clicks, and you can n = 17 having plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: tforty eight.cuatro = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).